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ARTICLE
Year : 2009  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 289-293

The cervical smear pattern in patients with chronic pelvic inflammatory disease


Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Zaria, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
M A Abdul
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Zaria, Nigeria

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


PMID: 19803028

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BACKGROUND: Cancer of the cervix is the commonest malignancy of the genital tract in Nigeria. In an atmosphere of opportunistic screening due to lack of a national screening programme, studies are needed to determine patients at risk of premalignant lesions of the cervix. GOAL: To determine cervical smear pattern in patients with chronic pelvic inflammatory disease and investigate the potential of chronic pelvic inflammatory disease as a risk factor to cervical dysplasia. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Zaria, Nigeria. SUBJECTS: Three hundred and sixty-nine premenopausal women attending the gynaecologic and family planning clinics of Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Zaria, Nigeria from January to December 2000. RESULTS: Of the 369 women that had cervical cytology by Pap smear, 163 (44%) had chronic pelvic inflammatory disease (cases) while 206 (56%) were non chronic PID patients (control). There was no statistical significance in the mean age between the two groups. The mean age at first coitus and marriage of all the women were 17.92.7 years and 18.5 3.4 years respectively. There were 52 dysplastic smears encountered, giving a prevalence rate of 140/1,000 or 14% for Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia. There were higher cases of dysplasia in the chronic PID group than in the control and this differences was statistically significant (p<0.05). Other risk factors to dysplasia identified include high parity (>4) and age of first coitus less than 20 years. Only 10% of all the women screened were aware of both cervical cancer and Pap smear. CONCLUSION: Women with chronic pelvic inflammatory disease are probably at higher risk of developing cervical dysplasia than women without chronic pelvic inflammatory disease. Cervical cancer screening programmes should be intensified in chronic pelvic inflammatory disease patients. However, further studies are needed in our setting to verify the association between pelvic inflammatory disease and cervical dysplasia.


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