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Year : 2013  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 521-525

Pediatric HIV in Kano, Nigeria

Department of Paediatrics, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
P N Obiagwu
Department of Paediatrics, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1119-3077.116905

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Background: Pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is still an important public health issue despite a decrease in global, national, and local seroprevalence rates. Design: A prospective, hospital-based study was conducted. Materials and Methods: One-hundred and sixty children presenting for the first time to the hospital were studied. Each child had a detailed physical examination and initial double rapid HIV antibody tests. A virological confirmatory test was done for those aged less than 18 months of age with positive results. Mothers of HIV-infected children also had HIV testing. HIV-infected children were enrolled into HIV care and followed up for 6 months. Data were analyzed using the SPSS 16.0 for Windows. Results: Twenty-two (13.8%) children were confirmed HIV-infected. The mean age was 26.9 ± 30.8 months. Male to female ratio was 1.1:1. Probable modes of transmission were mother-to-child in 63.6%, group circumcision in 22.7%, sexual transmission in 9.1% and unscreened blood transfusion in 4.5%. The most frequent symptoms on presentation were fever in 95.4% of patients, cough and weight loss in 77.3% and diarrhoea in 59.1%. The most common signs were hepatomegaly in 77.3%, pyrexia and crepitations in 72.7%, and pallor in 40.9%. Commonly diagnosed conditions were undernutrition, diarrheal disease, oral thrush, and pneumonia. Tuberculosis co-infection was diagnosed in 18.2% of children. Fourteen (63.6%) children had advanced and severe immunodeficiency. Mortality rate over 6 months was 18.2%. Conclusion: Early diagnosis of pediatric HIV and prompt institution of treatment in children would go a long way in reducing the scourge of the disease.

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