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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 17  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 196-200

Chronic kidney disease in children as seen in a tertiary hospital in Enugu, South-East, Nigeria


Department of Paediatrics, Paediatric Nephrology Unit, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria

Date of Acceptance14-Jul-2013
Date of Web Publication20-Feb-2014

Correspondence Address:
O I Odetunde
Department of Paediatrics, Paediatric Nephrology Unit, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku Ozalla, Enugu
Nigeria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1119-3077.127553

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   Abstract 

Background: The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children has been reported to be rising locally and globally. There is a dearth of data and inadequate facilities for the management of CKD in children in most of the developing countries like Nigeria.
Objectives: The objective of this study is to ascertain the prevalence of CKD among children seen at University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu, South-East Nigeria and also to determine the stage of CKD at presentation, possible etiology, treatment options offered and the outcome.
Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of pediatric ward admissions in UNTH over a 5 year period (July, 2007 to June, 2012) was done. Information, including the age at presentation, symptoms, level of renal function, management and outcome, were obtained from the medical case notes.
Results: There were 3002 pediatric admissions within the period of review, of which 98 (3.3%) had CKD, giving incidence of 3.0 new cases per million-child population per year and the prevalence of 14.9 per million children population. Majority (54.1%) of those with CKD were over 10 years of age. Edema, oliguria and hypertension were the most frequent clinical features. The most common etiology was glomerular disease (63.6%) and 44.9% presented in CKD stage 4 and 5. Renal replacement therapy (RRT) was offered to 25 (25.5%) of the patients; 6 (24%) of whom had hemodialysis and 3 (12%) had acute peritoneal dialysis while 16 (64%) were managed conservatively. None of the patients had chronic or adequate dialysis. The overall outcome showed that 8 (8.2%) died while on admission, 15 (15.3%) left against medical advice (discharge against medical advice) because of financial constraints and could not access the therapy, 25 (25.5%) were discharged on conservative management and lost to follow-up while another 50 (51.0%) were discharged and still on follow-up.
Conclusion: CKD in children poses myriad of challenges in management in our setting with late presentation of patients and limited resources being prominent. The majority of patients could not access and sustain RRT and the outcome continues to be daunting.

Keywords: Children, chronic kidney disease, Enugu, Nigeria, prevalence


How to cite this article:
Odetunde O I, Okafor H U, Uwaezuoke S N, Ezeonwu B U, Adiele K D, Ukoha O M. Chronic kidney disease in children as seen in a tertiary hospital in Enugu, South-East, Nigeria. Niger J Clin Pract 2014;17:196-200

How to cite this URL:
Odetunde O I, Okafor H U, Uwaezuoke S N, Ezeonwu B U, Adiele K D, Ukoha O M. Chronic kidney disease in children as seen in a tertiary hospital in Enugu, South-East, Nigeria. Niger J Clin Pract [serial online] 2014 [cited 2019 May 26];17:196-200. Available from: http://www.njcponline.com/text.asp?2014/17/2/196/127553


   Introduction Top


There is limited epidemiological information on chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the pediatric population from sub-Saharan African countries as CKD is usually asymptomatic in the early stage resulting in gross under-diagnosis and under-reporting. With the current evaluation, classification and stratification system described by the National Kidney Foundation, Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) clinical practice guidelines for CKD, [1] more epidemiological data should be available from the region. K/DOQI work group defined CKD as the presence of markers of kidney damage for ≥3 months with evidence of structural and functional abnormalities of the kidney, with or without decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) that is manifested by either pathological abnormalities or other markers of kidney damage, including abnormalities in the blood, urine or in imaging tests or GFR <60 mls/min/1.73 m 2 for ≥3 months, with or without kidney damage. [1],[2] Although, the prevalence of CKD in children has been reported to be rising locally [3],[4],[5] and globally [6],[7],[8],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13] with a steady annual increase rate of 8%, [5] there is a dearth of data and facilities for treatment is still not readily available in our environment. [3],[4] With the paucity of data on CKD in the pediatric population in the region, the condition may not be considered a priority for interventions. This paper aims to provide data, which will inform health policies that may be beneficial to this group of patients.


   Materials and Methods Top


Study site

This study was carried out at the pediatric ward, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) and Enugu. The hospital is among the first generation tertiary hospital facilities with multidisciplinary clinic. The Pediatric Nephrology clinic of UNTH services to patients from the catchment area predominantly from the South-Eastern regions of Nigeria that has estimated a combined population of 16 million (16, 395, 552) and children constitute 40% of the population. [14] Ethical approval was sought from Health Research and Ethics Committee of UNTH, Enugu before commencing the study.

Methods

A retrospective review of pediatric ward admissions over a period of 5 years from July 2007 (when the hospital moved from the old site to the permanent site) to June 2012 was carried out. Admitted patients who had any of the K/DOQI clinical practice guideline criteria for CKD evaluation, classification and stratification for 3 months or more were considered cases of CKD such as proteinuria (on the spot urine protein ≥1+) and nephrotic range proteinuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR using Schwartz formula) of <60 ml/min/1.73 m 2 and abnormal imaging studies. [1] The age at presentation of the CKD patient, the symptoms and duration of illness, the possible etiology, the renal function (eGFR), the management given, the outcome and follow-up, were obtained and recorded in the study proforma. Clinical diagnosis of glomerulonephritis in non-nephrotic patients was based on nephritic features of hypertension, hematuria, red blood cell cast, oliguria, proteinuria and edema. Family socio-economic class (SECS) was determined using the method recommended by Oyedeji to assign SECE to pediatric patients on hospital admission in his study. [15]

Data collected were subjected to analysis in the form of frequency and percentage using the Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) version 17.0 and results presented as tables and charts.


   Results Top


During the 5 year period of review, 3002 children were admitted into the ward and 98 of them had CKD; 53 (54.1%) males and 45 (45.9%) females, giving a male:female ratio of 1.2:1, incidence of three new cases per million-child population per year and the prevalence of 14.9 per million children populations as presented in [Table 1]. At presentation, 9 (9.2%) of the children were below 5 years of age, 36 (36.7%) were aged between 5 and 10 years while 53 (54.1.0%) were 10-16 years [Figure 1]. 83 (84.7%) had edema, 41 (41.8%) had hypertension, 50 (51.0%) had oliguria, 36 (36.7%) each had anemia and easy fatigability [Figure 2]. Other features at presentation were fever, poor weight gain, convulsion and vomiting, 8 (8.2%) had a past history of ingestion of herbal medication. Duration of symptoms at initial presentation was ≤3 months in 37 (33.3%) of patients while in 61 (66.7%) patients, symptoms had lasted for more than 3 months. 73 (74.5%) of patients were from family of low SECS, 20 (20.4%) were of middle SECE and only 5 (5.1%) were of upper SECS.

Patients with CKD were predominantly in stage 4 and 5 at presentation, [Table 2]. The most common features were suggestive of glomerulonephritis as shown in [Table 3]. Renal replacement therapy (RRT) was offered to 25 (25.5%) of patients; 6 (24%) of the 25 patients that required RRT had hemodialysis (HD) and 3 (12%) had acute peritoneal dialysis (APD) while 16 (64%) were managed conservatively [Figure 3]. None of the patients had chronic or adequate dialysis as average sessions were, 2/week for HD and 4/day for APD for the average of 2 days. The overall outcome showed that 8 (8.2%) died while on admission, 15 (15.3%) left against medical advice (discharge against medical advice) because of financial constraint and could not access the therapy, 25 (25.5%) were discharged on conservative management and lost to follow-up while another 50 (51.0%) were discharge and still on follow-up [Figure 4].
Figure 1: Age distribution of patients with chronic kidney disease

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Figure 2: Distribution of symptoms at presentation

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Figure 3: Renal replacement therapy indication and patients accessed to therapy

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Figure 4: Outcome of patients with chronic kidney disease

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Table 1: Total pediatric admissions and prevalence of CKD

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Table 2: Stage of CKD at initial presentation

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Table 3: Primary etiological diagnosis in patients with CKD

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   Discussion Top


Globally, the number of patients with CKD is increasing markedly to extent of becoming a major public health concern and may reach an epidemic level in the next decade. [8],[16] The incidence of cases per million-child population differ from one country to another with 7-12 in Europe, [7],[9],[10],[11] 5.7 in Chile, [12] 15 in America, [13] and 1.7-3 in Nigeria. [3],[4] The prevalence of CKD in children in this study is similar to that found in Port Harcourt by Anochie and Eke [4] but higher than the report by Michael and Gabreil in Benin, [3] which documented 4/million children population in their study. [3] Although, these two studies [3],[4] are hospital based like this current study, but concentrated on the later and more severe stage of renal impairment. The definition of CKD in these previous studies however was not standardized as the K/DOQI classification was not applied; hence, it becomes difficult for comparison. The high prevalence rate in this study could be due to improvement in the health-seeking behavior of the parents and increasing awareness on the importance of referral to specialty clinics on the part of the clinicians. This may be the result of awareness campaigns embarked by the unit during World Kidney Day celebrations and in other forum. Recently, the unit has experienced an increase in the number of referrals from within the hospitals catchment area. Another explanation to this rising prevalence is the liberalization of herbal intake for the treatment of ailments. The constituents of these herbs have not been critically analyzed for nephrotoxins. A study in South Africa showed increased morbidity and mortality following the use of herbal medications, from volume depletion and acute tubular necrosis. [17]

All patients had identifiable clinical features and the most common presentation was edema. This was similar to the finding by Michael and Gabreil [3] Despite the obvious clinical manifestations, patient still presented late and when they are already in kidney failure. Michael and Gabreil [3] documented similar findings. The temporary resolution of the body swelling with administration of diuretics from local patent medicine dealers and herbalists may have contributed to delay in a presentation to the nephrologists. Edema, hypertension and anemia were the prevalent presenting features as also observed in a similar study in Nigeria. [3] The frequency of hypertension among the clinical presentation of children with CKD shows the importance of holistic assessment of children during any clinic visit, for early identification of kidney disease.

There was male preponderance in the index study in consonance with another study [6] in Nigeria. Both studies were hospital based studies and only patients on admission were enrolled. A community based study may be better to assess any gender predominance.

CKD predominated in children older than 10 years reflecting the possibility of acquired etiological factors like infection related nephropathy, which has been reported by other studies from the region. [3],[4],[5],[18] This is in contrast to what obtains in western countries where the prevalent cause is congenital anomalies of the kidneys. [9],[10],[11],[12],[13] The most common identifiable causes of CKD from this study were glomerular disease and more than 70% presented with the nephrotic syndrome. Other important causes of CKD in this study are toxic nephropathy and posterior urethral valve (PUV). Other studies at different locations in Nigeria documented the same etiology. [3],[4],[5],[18],[19] Patients with PUV are at risk for CKD despite surgical relief. [20],[21] Simple observation of urinary stream of male neonates and infants, by mothers and pediatricians can help in reducing the risk of CKD from PUV as many will present with voiding complaints. [20] However, this has not been routinely done and as a result, cases of PUV are missed at the early stage and the resultant retrograde flow leads to progressive nephron loss and kidney failure. [20],[21]

The management of CKD in children in our environment has followed the same pattern over the years. Adequate RRT has continued to be unavailable and unaffordable, [3],[4],[5],[18] besides, there is no facility which offers chronic dialysis program for pediatric patients and those who started dialysis could not sustain it for long, due to the cost implication, since these services are not subsidized. Moreover, 75% of patients in this study were from the lower SECS status with abject poverty and this is an important factor contributing to the overall poor outcome in the study. This is similar to other studies from the region with increase mortality and loss to follow-up. [3],[4],[5],[18]

We conclude that CKD in children apparently is on the increase and late presentation as well as failure to provide adequate management has continued to play a significant role in the overall outcome of patients. The diagnostic and interventional approach to CKD in the sub-region should emphasize more on primary prevention, early detection and aggressive slow-down of progression of the disease. We therefore recommend that identification and screening of children at risk, early referral to nephrologists and subsidization of available RRT options, should be instituted as this will help to alleviate the burden of CKD in children in the sub-region.

 
   References Top

1.National Kidney Foundation. K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: Evaluation, classification, and stratification. Am J Kidney Dis 2002;39:S1-266.  Back to cited text no. 1
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2.Hogg RJ, Furth S, Lemley KV, Portman R, Schwartz GJ, Coresh J, et al. National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease in children and adolescents: Evaluation, classification, and stratification. Pediatrics 2003;111:1416-21.  Back to cited text no. 2
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3.Michael IO, Gabreil OE. Chronic renal failure in children of Benin, Nigeria. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2004;15:79-83.  Back to cited text no. 3
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4.Anochie I, Eke F. Chronic renal failure in children: A report from Port Harcourt, Nigeria (1985-2000). Pediatr Nephrol 2003;18:692-5.  Back to cited text no. 4
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5.Alebiosu CO, Ayodele OE. The global burden of chronic kidney disease and the way forward. Ethn Dis 2005;15:418-23.  Back to cited text no. 5
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6.Yap HK, Quek CM, Shen Q, Joshi V, Chia KS. Role of urinary screening programmes in children in the prevention of chronic kidney disease. Ann Acad Med Singapore 2005;34:3-7.  Back to cited text no. 6
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7.Ardissino G, Daccò V, Testa S, Bonaudo R, Claris-Appiani A, Taioli E, et al. Epidemiology of chronic renal failure in children: Data from the ItalKid project. Pediatrics 2003;111:e382-7.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Meguid El Nahas A, Bello AK. Chronic kidney disease: The global challenge. Lancet 2005;365:331-40.  Back to cited text no. 8
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9.Deleau J, Andre JL, Briancon S, Musse JP. Chronic renal failure in children: An epidemiological survey in Lorraine (France) 1975-1990. Pediatr Nephrol 1994;8:472-6.  Back to cited text no. 9
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10.Esbjörner E, Berg U, Hansson S. Epidemiology of chronic renal failure in children: A report from Sweden 1986-1994. Swedish Pediatric Nephrology Association. Pediatr Nephrol 1997;11:438-42.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.van der Heijden BJ, van Dijk PC, Verrier-Jones K, Jager KJ, Briggs JD. Renal replacement therapy in children: Data from 12 registries in Europe. Pediatr Nephrol 2004;19:213-21.  Back to cited text no. 11
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12.Lagomarsimo E, Valenzuela A, Cavagnaro F, Solar E. Chronic renal failure in pediatrics 1996. Chilean survey. Pediatr Nephrol 1999;13:288-91.  Back to cited text no. 12
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13.U.S. Renal Data System, USRDS 2005 Annual Data Report: Atlas of End-Stage Renal Disease in United States. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, National Institutes of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; 2005. Available from: www.usrds.org/altlas05.aspx. [Last accessed on 2013 May 09].  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.Nigeria 2006 Census figures (Population)- Nigeria Masterweb. 2013 Available from: http://www.nigeriamasterweb.com/Nigeria06CensusFigs.html. [Last accessed on 2013 May 09].  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.Oyedeji GA. Socioeconomic and cultural background of hospitalized children in Ilesa. Niger J Paediatr 1985;12:111-7.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.Lysaght MJ. Maintenance dialysis population dynamics: Current trends and long-term implications. J Am Soc Nephrol 2002;13 Suppl 1:S37-40.  Back to cited text no. 16
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17.Luyckx VA, Steenkamp V, Stewart MJ. Acute renal failure associated with the use of traditional folk remedies in South Africa. Ren Fail 2005;27:35-43.  Back to cited text no. 17
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18.Ulasi II, Ijoma CK. The enormity of chronic kidney disease in Nigeria: The situation in a teaching hospital in South-East Nigeria. J Trop Med 2010;2010:501957.  Back to cited text no. 18
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19.Odubanjo MO, Oluwasola AO, Kadiri S. The epidemiology of end-stage renal disease in Nigeria: The way forward. Int Urol Nephrol 2011;43:785-92.  Back to cited text no. 19
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20.Odetunde OI, Odetunde OA, Ademuyiwa AO, Okafor HU, Ekwochi U, Azubuike JC, et al. Outcome of late presentation of posterior urethral valves in a resource-limited economy: Challenges in management. Int J Nephrol 2012;2012:345298.  Back to cited text no. 20
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21.Engel DL, Pope JC 4 th , Adams MC, Brock JW 3 rd , Thomas JC, Tanaka ST. Risk factors associated with chronic kidney disease in patients with posterior urethral valves without prenatal hydronephrosis. J Urol 2011;185:2502-6.  Back to cited text no. 21
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]


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