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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 20  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 31-36

Prevalence and predictors of placental malaria in human immunodeficiency virus-positive women in Nigeria


1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu; Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria
2 Department of Haematology and Immunology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu; Department of Haematology and Immunology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria
3 Department of Paediatrics, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. E O Ugwu
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, P. M. B. 01129, Enugu 400001
Nigeria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1119-3077.180077

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Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women have alterations in cellular and humoral immunity that increase the risks to placental malaria infection. Aim: This study aimed at determining the prevalence and predictors of placental malaria among HIV-positive women in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: It was a longitudinal cohort study of pregnant women receiving antenatal care at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Peripheral blood sample for packed cell volume estimation and placental blood sample for malaria parasite estimation were collected from each participant at a presentation in labor and upon delivery, respectively. Results: The Prevalence of placenta malaria (68.6%) and anemia (66.7%) in HIV-positive women were significantly higher than the prevalence of placental malaria (35.3%) and anemia (44.1%) in HIV-negative control (P < 0.001 and P = 0.001 respectively). The employment status was the only sociodemographic factor significantly associated with the development of placental malaria in HIV-positive women (odds ratio: 21.60; 95% confidence interval: 7.1–66.2; P< 0.001). Conclusion: The prevalence of placental malaria is very high among HIV-positive women in Nigeria. Scaling up free distribution of insecticide treated nets in the short term and employment opportunities of HIV-positive women, in the long run, may reduce the prevalence of placental malaria in our population.


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