Medical and Dental Consultants’ Association of Nigeria
Home - About us - Editorial board - Search - Ahead of print - Current issue - Archives - Submit article - Instructions - Subscribe - Advertise - Contacts - Login 
  Users Online: 331   Home Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size
 

  Table of Contents 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 20  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 182-187

Serum obestatin and omentin levels in patients with diabetic nephropathy


1 Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Bezmialem Vakif University, Istanbul, Turkey
2 Deparment of Medical Biochemistry, Bezmialem Vakif University, Faculty of Medicine, 34093 Fatih, Istanbul, Turkey
3 Department of Family Medicine, Samsun Teaching and Research Hospital, 55100 Samsun, Turkey

Date of Acceptance08-Apr-2016
Date of Web Publication13-Jan-2017

Correspondence Address:
Dr. E Yavuz
Family Medicine Clinic, Samsun Teaching and Research Hospital, Ilyaskoy, Mahallesi, 55100 Samsun
Turkey
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1119-3077.181350

Rights and Permissions
   Abstract 

Introduction: Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease and accounts for almost 45% of all new patients requiring renal replacement therapy. Omentin and obestatin, two novel proteins were suggested to be associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors. Thus, we postulated that they may also have an association with diabetic nephropathy which is known to be an independent cardiovascular risk factor. In order to investigate such an association we compared serum omentin and obestatin levels in type 2 diabetic patients with normoalbuminuria (NA) and macroalbuminuria (MA).
Materials and Methods: A total of 81 type 2 diabetic patients were separated into two groups according to their proteinuria status; patients with NA (n = 39) and patients with MA (n = 42). Two groups were compared in terms of serum omentin and obestatin levels.
Results: While
s erum omentin levels did not differ among two groups (P = 0.407), serum obestatin levels were significantly higher in MA group (P = 0.001).
Conclusion: The results of this study showed that higher serum levels of obestatin were associated with macro albuminuria suggesting that obestatin may have a role in underlying pathogenic mechanisms that leads to diabetic nephropathy.

Keywords: Diabetes mellitus type 2, diabetic nephropathy, obestatin, omentin


How to cite this article:
Zorlu M, Kiskac M, Güler E M, Gültepe &, Yavuz E, Çelik K, Kocyigit A. Serum obestatin and omentin levels in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Niger J Clin Pract 2017;20:182-7

How to cite this URL:
Zorlu M, Kiskac M, Güler E M, Gültepe &, Yavuz E, Çelik K, Kocyigit A. Serum obestatin and omentin levels in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Niger J Clin Pract [serial online] 2017 [cited 2020 Sep 30];20:182-7. Available from: http://www.njcponline.com/text.asp?2017/20/2/182/181350


   Introduction Top


Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and accounts for almost 45% of all new patients requiring renal replacement therapy.[1],[2] Diabetic nephropathy develops in about 20–40% of type 2 diabetes patients, and it is not known why it is not seen in all of the patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. Many mechanisms were suspected to contribute to the emergence of diabetic nephropathy and its clinical course including atherosclerotic and inflammatory processes.[3] It is now believed that adipose tissue actively participates in neuroendocrine, cardiovascular and immune systems by secreting proteins and other products (called adipokines), as well as responding to neural, hormonal, and nutritional signals.[4]

Omentin is an adipokine preferentially produced by visceral adipose tissue with insulin-sensitizing effects and its expression was shown to be reduced in obesity, insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes. Omentin was also found to be positively related with adiponectin, high-density lipoprotein levels and negatively related with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, IR, triglyceride (TG) and leptin levels. Lower plasma omentin levels was suspected to contribute to the pathogenesis of IR, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in obese or overweight patients.[5],[6],[7],[8]

Obestatin, a recently discovered 23 amino acid peptide hormone, is derived by posttranslational cleavage of the same peptide precursor (preproghrelin) as ghrelin, which is a peptide mainly released from the stomach.[9] In several studies in adult humans, decreasing concentrations of obestatin were associated with diabetes and impaired glucose regulation and the insulin-sensitivity surrogate homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) of IR indicating an important role for obestatin in body weight regulation.[10],[11],[12] Obestatin has been reported to have important effects on endothelial cells such as decreasing vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression and increasing oxidized low-density lipoprotein binding to macrophages.[13] Therefore, it was suggested that obestatin may also have a potential function in the regulation of blood pressure.[14]

Because these two proteins, omentin and obestatin were reported to be associated with diabetes, IR and cardiovascular risk factors, we hypothesized that they may also play a role in underlying pathogenic mechanisms which leads to progression of albuminuria in type 2 diabetic patients. The aims of the present study were to measure fasting serum omentin and obestatin concentrations in type 2 diabetic patients with normoalbuminuria (NA) and macroalbuminuria (MA).


   Materials and Methods Top


Study population

This study was designed as a prospective, cross-sectional, case–control study. A total of 81 patients with type 2 diabetes presented to internal medicine outpatient clinic of Bezmialem Vakif University Faculty of Medicine between March and August 2015 were included into this study. All individuals provided written informed consent prior to inclusion in the study. The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee at the Bezmialem Vakif University Faculty of Medicine. Two age and sex-matched groups were formed: Type 2 diabetic patients with MA (n = 42; 23 women and 19 men) and patients with NA (n = 39; 21 women and 18 men).

Patients with malignancy, chronic pulmonary diseases, chronic liver diseases, chronic renal diseases, coronary, cerebrovascular and peripheral arterial diseases, urinary tract infection during proteinuria test and abnormal thyroid function tests were excluded from the study.

All volunteers underwent a thorough physical examination and their height, weight and waist circumferences were recorded. Weight and height were measured to the nearest kilogram and centimeter, respectively and BMI was calculated from the formula (BMI = weight/[height] 2).

Blood assay

Venous blood samples were collected from all patients in the morning (8:00–9:00) after an at least 12 h overnight fast and laboratory analysis of fasting glucose, urea, creatinine, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol (total-C), TGs, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), phosphate (P), total protein, albumin, aspartate aminotranspherase (AST), alanine aminotranspherase (ALT), total protein, albumin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), ferritin, complete blood count (CBC), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), parathormone (PTH) were performed with standard methods.

Serum samples of volunteers were transferred into separate eppendorf tubes and frozen at–80°C for later determination of omentin and obestatin levels. Serum obestatin levels were measured using a commercial enzyme immunoassay kit (Sunredbio, Baoshan District, Shanghai) and serum omentin levels were measured using a commercial enzyme immunoassay kit (Aviscera Bioscience, Santaclara, USA) according to the manufacturers' instructions with an analyzer (Thermo Scientific Multiskan FC, USA). Samples were measured in duplicate and the average was used in the data analysis.

Measurement of albumin in urine samples

Urine samples were taken for biochemical analyses after an overnight fast of 12 h. Urinary albumin was determined in an early morning spot urine sample. The urine albumin concentration was estimated by a using a commercial kit (Abbott Architect) via the immunoturbidimetric method on a biochemical analyzer (Abbott Architect, C16.000, USA).

The state of albuminuria was defined as NA (urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio [UACR] <30 mg/g), microalbuminuria (UACR = 30–299 mg/g), or MA (UACR UACRalbumi) by using first morning urine specimen.[15]

Statistical analysis

Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for Windows 20.0 software (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA) was used to perform the statistical analysis of the data. The continuous variables were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Continuous variables were compared between the two groups using Mann–Whitney U-test. Student's t-test was used to compare parametric variables between the patient and control groups. Bivariate correlation analyses were done by Spearman's test.


   Results Top


Two groups (MA and NA) did not differ in terms of age, sex, BMI, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure readings, creatinine, total-C, HDL-C, LDL-C, Ca, P, AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, HbA1c, PTH, CK, serum iron, TIBC, ferritin, CBC parameters, TSH. Diabetes duration, serum levels of fasting glucose and TGs were significantly higher in MA group (P = 0.043, P = 0,014, P = 0,008; respectively). Serum albumin levels were significantly lower in MA group (P < 0,001). Serum omentin levels did not differ amongst two groups (P = 0.124) while serum obestatin levels were significantly higher in MA group (P = 0,002). [Table 1] summarizes some of these parameters compared.
Table 1: The comparison of antropometric and biochemical parameters between macroalbuminuria and normoalbuminuria groups

Click here to view


Results of this study showed that serum omentin levels correlated positively with diabetes duration, fasting glucose levels, LDL-C, HDL-C, HbA1c, Ca and albuminuria and negatively with age, BMI, obestatin, total-C, TGs, P, PTH, but these correlations did not reach statistical significance [Table 2].
Table 2: The correlation of serum omentin levels with anthropometric and biochemical parameters in all study population

Click here to view


Serum obestatin levels correlated positively with age, diabetes duration, BMI, fasting glucose levels, TGs, and albuminuria and negatively correlated with serum omentin, creatinine, total-C, LDL-C, HDL-C, HbA1c, Ca, P, PTH. Of these, only positive correlation with albuminuria reached statistical significance (P = 0.001, r = 0.349) [Table 3].
Table 3: The correlation of serum obestatin levels with anthropometric and biochemical parameters in all study population

Click here to view



   Discussion Top


In this study, we sought to determine the relationship between circulating omentin-1 and obestatin levels and MA in patients with type 2 diabetes. This study has two main findings: (1) Serum Omentin-1 levels did not differ between patients with NA and MA. (2) Serum obestatin levels were significantly higher in patients with MA. The common early signs of diabetic nephropathy are microalbuminuria and overt proteinuria.[15] Microalbuminuria is a strong and independent indicator of increased cardiovascular risk among individuals with and without diabetes.[16]

In recent years, visceral adipose tissues and adipokines have been implicated to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. Omentin is a novel adipokine mainly expressed in visceral adipose tissue shown to be associated with chronic inflammatory diseases, IR, obesity and carotid atherosclerosis and has been suggested as a biomarker of metabolic disorders.[17] Several studies have shown that serum omentin levels were negatively correlated with metabolic risk factors and seemed to have anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects.[8],[17],[18] Recent studies have shown omentin as a modulator of vascular function via endothelium-dependent vasodilation and may play a protective role in the cardiovascular system.[19],[20] Omentin plays a role in vascular inflammation as it suppresses cytokine-stimulated expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells so it was suggested that omentin may be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.[21] Recently, in a meta-analysis Agasthi et al. found that serum omentin level is independently and negatively associated with coronary artery disease. They concluded that further studies were needed to define the role of omentin in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease and its potential to serve as a novel biomarker.[22] Moreover, there is now convincing data demonstrating that common pathogenic mechanisms such as inflammation, oxidative stress and altered levels of adipocytokines are related to both microvascular and macrovascular complications.[23]

Only very few papers analyzed serum omentin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes.[24],[25],[26] Similarly, until recently, a few studies have reported associations between omentin and subclinical atherosclerosis (e.g., carotid atherosclerosis) but not in diabetic patients.[27],[28] To the best of our knowledge there are two studies investigating the relationship between serum omentin levels and diabetic microvascular complications. Jung et al. recently evaluated 97 patients with type 2 diabetes and reported that there was no association between serum omentin levels and diabetic microvascular complications such as nephropathy, retinopathy and peripheral neuropathy.[25] Similarly in this study, we found that there was no difference in serum omentin levels amongst two groups of diabetic patients with or without MA. Tekce et al. analyzed 64 patients with CKD with or without type 2 diabetes and 27 healthy controls. Serum omentin levels were significantly lower in the diabetic CKD subgroup compared to the healthy control group and nondiabetic CKD subgroup. However, no significant differences were found between nondiabetic CKD and control groups.[26] Because both patients in two groups in our study were diabetic and we found no difference between NA and MA groups in serum omentin levels it may be suggested that omentin plays a role in pathophysiological pathways resulting in diabetes rather than MA. On the contrary of majority of the studies investigating serum omentin levels in healthy subjects or patients with metabolic syndrome or obesity, significant associations of glycemic parameters or BMI, TGs, HDL-C with serum omentin levels were not detected in our present study.[5],[17],[18] Consistent with our results, Hossein-Nezhad et al. and more recently Jung et al. reported that no significant relationship between serum omentin levels and glucose metabolism was found.[25],[29] Similarly, Kilic et al. reported that plasma omentin levels did not differ between metabolic syndrome patients and control subjects, and in all subjects, omentin was positively correlated with TG levels and negatively correlated with HDL-C levels.[30] It can be argued that this discrepancy is likely due to differences in study designs, measurement methods and population demographics and further prospective studies with larger number of patients are needed to clarify these conflicting results.

Obestatin is a 23 amino acid amidated peptide, member of the preproghrelin gene-derived peptides. Initially, obestatin was reported to exert opposite effects to those of ghrelin on food intake and body weight gain, through interaction with GPR39.[31] However, these findings are still strongly debated and biological role of obestatin remains largely unknown.[32] Despite being a controversial peptide, recent findings have clearly indicated that obestatin is indeed a multifunctional peptide, exerting a variety of effects, such as stimulation of cell proliferation, survival and differentiation, influence on glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective actions.[33],[34],[35],[36] Its positive effects on glucose and lipid metabolism candidate this peptide as a potential therapeutic tool in pathological conditions such as IR and diabetes. Studies in humans have shown that blood obestatin levels are significantly lower in obese subjects and correlate negatively with BMI, insulin, glucose and the HOMA-IR.[11],[12] Contrary to these positive findings, our results suggested a rise in serum obestatin levels in type 2 diabetes patients with MA compared with type 2 diabetes patients with NA. Albumuniria was reported to reflect a local (renal) endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation.[37],[38] So, it may be expected a decrease in serum obestatin levels in patients with MA. We also found that serum obestatin levels positively correlated with albumin levels in urine samples. Thus, it may be contemplated that there is an association between albumin and obestatin in terms of pathophysiological pathways. Moreover, Ma et al. recently reported that plasma ghrelin concentrations were negatively correlated with UACR in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.[39] Vicennati et al. and Zhang et al. reported lower ghrelin and oppositely higher obestatin levels in obese patients.[40],[41] So, these two peptides may be working opposite each other as reported initially and a decrease in ghrelin levels may result in an increase in obestatin levels in patients with IR, low grade inflammation or T2DM.

The strengths of the present study are that it is one of the few studies investigating association of serum omentin levels and to our best knowledge, the only study evaluating serum obestatin levels with microvascular complications of T2DM. Nevertheless, this study has several limitations. This was a cross-sectional study, which therefore could not determine causal relationships between omentin and obestatin levels and diabetic nephropathy. In addition, we chose patients with MA, tha later stage of diabetic nephropathy omitting patients with microalbuminuria expecting more pronounced results. Finally, we did not investigate serum ghrelin levels which might have given more insight for our obestatin results.


   Conclusion Top


The results of the present study suggest that higher serum levels of obestatin were associated with MA suggesting that obestatin may have a role in underlying pathogenic mechanisms that leads to diabetic nephropathy.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
   References Top

1.
United States Renal Data System. Excerpts from the USRDS 2009 annual data report: Atlas of end-stage renal disease in the United States. Am J Kidney Dis 2010;55 Suppl 1:S1-5.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Incidence of end-stage renal disease attributed to diabetes among persons with diagnosed diabetes – United States and Puerto Rico, 1996-2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2010;59:1361-6.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Dronavalli S, Duka I, Bakris GL. The pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab 2008;4:444-52.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Flier JS. Obesity wars: Molecular progress confronts an expanding epidemic. Cell 2004;116:337-50.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
de Souza Batista CM, Yang RZ, Lee MJ, Glynn NM, Yu DZ, Pray J, et al. Omentin plasma levels and gene expression are decreased in obesity. Diabetes 2007;56:1655-61.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Pan HY, Guo L, Li Q. Changes of serum omentin-1 levels in normal subjects and in patients with impaired glucose regulation and with newly diagnosed and untreated type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2010;88:29-33.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Tan BK, Adya R, Farhatullah S, Lewandowski KC, O'Hare P, Lehnert H, et al. Omentin-1, a novel adipokine, is decreased in overweight insulin-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome: Ex vivo and in vivo regulation of omentin-1 by insulin and glucose. Diabetes 2008;57:801-8.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Zhou JY, Chan L, Zhou SW. Omentin: Linking metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Curr Vasc Pharmacol 2014;12:136-43.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Dornonville de la Cour C, Lindström E, Norlén P, Håkanson R. Ghrelin stimulates gastric emptying but is without effect on acid secretion and gastric endocrine cells. Regul Pept 2004;120:23-32.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Qi X, Li L, Yang G, Liu J, Li K, Tang Y, et al. Circulating obestatin levels in normal subjects and in patients with impaired glucose regulation and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2007;66:593-7.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Anderwald-Stadler M, Krebs M, Promintzer M, Mandl M, Bischof MG, Nowotny P, et al. Plasma obestatin is lower at fasting and not suppressed by insulin in insulin-resistant humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2007;293:E1393-8.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Nakahara T, Harada T, Yasuhara D, Shimada N, Amitani H, Sakoguchi T, et al. Plasma obestatin concentrations are negatively correlated with body mass index, insulin resistance index, and plasma leptin concentrations in obesity and anorexia nervosa. Biol Psychiatry 2008;64:252-5.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Kellokoski E, Kunnari A, Jokela M, Mäkelä S, Kesäniemi YA, Hörkkö S. Ghrelin and obestatin modulate early atherogenic processes on cells: Enhancement of monocyte adhesion and oxidized low-density lipoprotein binding. Metabolism 2009;58:1572-80.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Wang WM, Li SM, Du FM, Zhu ZC, Zhang JC, Li Y ×. Ghrelin and obestatin levels in hypertensive obese patients. J Int Med Res 2014;42:1202-8.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
American Diabetes Association. Microvascular complications and footcare: Diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes Care 2015;38 Suppl 1:S58-66.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Stehouwer CD, Smulders YM. Microalbuminuria and risk for cardiovascular disease: Analysis of potential mechanisms. J Am Soc Nephrol 2006;17:2106-11.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Shibata R, Ouchi N, Takahashi R, Terakura Y, Ohashi K, Ikeda N, et al. Omentin as a novel biomarker of metabolic risk factors. Diabetol Metab Syndr 2012;4:37.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Moreno-Navarrete JM, Catalán V, Ortega F, Gómez-Ambrosi J, Ricart W, Frühbeck G, et al. Circulating omentin concentration increases after weight loss. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2010;7:27.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Moreno-Navarrete JM, Ortega F, Castro A, Sabater M, Ricart W, Fernández-Real JM. Circulating omentin as a novel biomarker of endothelial dysfunction. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2011;19:1552-9.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Narumi T, Watanabe T, Kadowaki S, Kinoshita D, Yokoyama M, Honda Y, et al. Impact of serum omentin-1 levels on cardiac prognosis in patients with heart failure. Cardiovasc Diabetol 2014;13:84.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Tan BK, Adya R, Randeva HS. Omentin: a novel link between inflammation, diabesity, and cardiovascular disease. Trends Cardiovasc Med 2010;20:143-8.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Agasthi P, Aloor S, Axiyan M, Onwuanyi A. Association between serum omentin-1 level and coronary artery disease: A meta-analysis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2015;35:A548.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Paneni F, Beckman JA, Creager MA, Cosentino F. Diabetes and vascular disease: Pathophysiology, clinical consequences, and medical therapy: Part I. Eur Heart J 2013;34:2436-43.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Yoo HJ, Hwang SY, Hong HC, Choi HY, Yang SJ, Seo JA, et al. Association of circulating omentin-1 level with arterial stiffness and carotid plaque in type 2 diabetes. Cardiovasc Diabetol 2011;10:103.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Jung CH, Jung SH, Kim BY, Kim CH, Kang SK, Mok JO. Association of serum omentin levels with cardiac autonomic neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A hospital-based study. Cardiovasc Diabetol 2015;14:140.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Tekce H, Tekce BK, Aktas G, Alcelik A, Sengul E. Serum omentin-1 levels in diabetic and nondiabetic patients with chronic kidney disease. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2014;122:451-6.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Sengul E, Duygulu G, Dindar S, Bunul F. Serum omentin-1, inflammation and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with non-diabetic chronic kidney disease. Ren Fail 2013;35:1089-93.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Shibata R, Takahashi R, Kataoka Y, Ohashi K, Ikeda N, Kihara S, et al. Association of a fat-derived plasma protein omentin with carotid artery intima-media thickness in apparently healthy men. Hypertens Res 2011;34:1309-12.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Hossein-Nezhad A, Mirzaei K, Alatab S, Ahmadivand Z, Najmafshar A, Peppa M, et al. Circulating omentin-1 in obesity and metabolic syndrome status compared to control subjects. Endocrinol Metab Syndr 2012;S1:008.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Kilic DC, Oguz A, Uzunlulu M, Celik S, Koroglu G. Plasma omentin-1 levels are similar in nondiabetic metabolic syndrome patients and healthy subjects. J Endocrinol Metab 2011;1:182-7.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Zhang JV, Ren PG, Avsian-Kretchmer O, Luo CW, Rauch R, Klein C, et al. Obestatin, a peptide encoded by the ghrelin gene, opposes ghrelin's effects on food intake. Science 2005;310:996-9.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Gesmundo I, Gallo D, Favaro E, Ghigo E, Granata R. Obestatin: A new metabolic player in the pancreas and white adipose tissue. IUBMB Life 2013;65:976-82.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Granata R, Settanni F, Gallo D, Trovato L, Biancone L, Cantaluppi V, et al. Obestatin promotes survival of pancreatic beta-cells and human islets and induces expression of genes involved in the regulation of beta-cell mass and function. Diabetes 2008;57:967-79.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.
Granata R, Gallo D, Luque RM, Baragli A, Scarlatti F, Grande C, et al. Obestatin regulates adipocyte function and protects against diet-induced insulin resistance and inflammation. FASEB J 2012;26:3393-411.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.
Nagaraj S, Peddha MS, Manjappara UV. Fragments of obestatin as modulators of feed intake, circulating lipids, and stored fat. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2008;366:731-7.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.
Alloatti G, Arnoletti E, Bassino E, Penna C, Perrelli MG, Ghé C, et al. Obestatin affords cardioprotection to the ischemic-reperfused isolated rat heart and inhibits apoptosis in cultures of similarly stressed cardiomyocytes. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2010;299:H470-81.  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.
Pedrinelli R, Dell'Omo G, Di Bello V, Pellegrini G, Pucci L, Del Prato S, et al. Low-grade inflammation and microalbuminuria in hypertension. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2004;24:2414-9.  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.
Perticone F, Maio R, Tripepi G, Sciacqua A, Mallamaci F, Zoccali C. Microalbuminuria, endothelial dysfunction and inflammation in primary hypertension. J Nephrol 2007;20 Suppl 12:S56-62.  Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.
Ma X, Zhao Y, Wang Q, Wu L, Wang Z, Ma X, et al. Plasma ghrelin concentrations are negatively correlated with urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Am J Med Sci 2014;348:382-6.  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.
Vicennati V, Genghini S, De Iasio R, Pasqui F, Pagotto U, Pasquali R. Circulating obestatin levels and the ghrelin/obestatin ratio in obese women. Eur J Endocrinol 2007;157:295-301.  Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.
Zhang N, Yuan C, Li Z, Li J, Li X, Li C, et al. Meta-analysis of the relationship between obestatin and ghrelin levels and the ghrelin/obestatin ratio with respect to obesity. Am J Med Sci 2011;341:48-55.  Back to cited text no. 41
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]


This article has been cited by
1 Angiotensin-(1-7), Adipokines and Inflammation
Deborah de Farias Lelis,Daniela Fernanda de Freitas,Amanda Souto Machado,Thaísa Soares Crespo,Sérgio Henrique Sousa Santos
Metabolism. 2019; 95: 36
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Serum Levels of Angiopoietin-Like Protein 2 and Obestatin in Iranian Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Normal Body Mass Index
Elham Rahmani,Samad Akbarzadeh,Ainaz Broomand,Fatemeh Torabi,Niloofar Motamed,Marzieh Zohrabi
Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2018; 7(7): 159
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

Top
  
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
    Abstract
   Introduction
    Materials and Me...
   Results
   Discussion
   Conclusion
    References
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed2607    
    Printed106    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded392    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 2    

Recommend this journal