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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 21  |  Issue : 11  |  Page : 1430-1437

The prevalence of microalbuminuria and associated factors among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Botswana


1 Faculty of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Botswana and Department of Medicine, Princess Marina Hospital, Gaborone, Botswana
2 Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health Management, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana
3 Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Nazarbayev University, Astana, Kazakhstan and University Medical Center, Astana, Kazakhstan

Correspondence Address:
Dr. G M Rwegerera
Faculty of Medicine, University of Botswana, Private Bag 00713, Gaborone
Botswana
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/njcp.njcp_224_18

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Background: Microalbuminuria (MA) has been established as an early marker of both diabetic nephropathy and vascular disease in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Aims: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of MA and associated factors among patients with type 2 DM in Botswana. Settings and Design: Outpatient tertiary clinic. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study involving 289 patients with type 2DM was conducted from January 2013 to June 2013 in Block 6 Reference Clinic, a tertiary clinic in Gaborone, Botswana. A random spot urine sample was collected from each patient with MA defined as urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) between 3.0 and 30.0 mg/mmol. Statistical Analysis Used: Data analysis was done using STATA version 12 (College Station, TX, USA). Unpaired Student's t-test was used for compairing means and Chi-squared test was used for comparison of proportions between groups. A P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The majority of recruited patients (191, 66.1%) were females, and the median age (interquartile range) of the patients was 52 (42–53) years. The mean glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) for the study population was 8.43% with 70.6% of the population having HbA1c over 7%. MA was found in 129 (44.6%) of study participants. The duration of diabetes of 6–10 years, estimated glomerular filtration rate, HbA1c, and higher serum trigerycides levels were significantly associated with presence of MA. Conclusion: High prevalence of MA raises an urgent need for changes in the management of patients with type 2 DM in Botswana, with emphasis on prevention and reduction of MA to avoid development of overt diabetic nephropathy and ensuing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.


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