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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 21  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 436-442

Risk factors for breast cancer among Indian women: A case–control study

1 Department of General Surgery, Government Medical College, Ernakulam, Kerala, India
2 Department of Radiodiagnosis, Government Medical College, Trivandrum, Kerala, India
3 Department of General Surgery, Government Medical College, Trivandrum, Kerala, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. B Surakutty
Department of Radiodiagnosis, Government Medical College, Trivandrum - 695 011, Kerala
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/njcp.njcp_102_17

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Background: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among females all over the world. The incidence of breast cancer is persistently on the rise due to urbanization and lifestyle changes. Although various risk factors have been suggested for estimating the risk of developing breast cancer, most of these have been studied in the Western population. A better understanding of local characteristics of risk factors may help in devising locally effective prevention strategies for breast cancer. The primary objective of the study was to study the risk factors for carcinoma breast among Indian women. Materials and Methods: This was a case–control study, conducted from January 2011 to December 2012, at a tertiary level teaching institution. A total of 100 patients of Indian origin, attending the General Surgery Department with carcinoma breast during this period were the cases. Controls were the blood relatives of patients with other diagnosed malignancies. Results: The major risk factors for breast cancer are found to be age, diet, waist size, hip size, waist-hip ratio (WHR), body mass index, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, more than three pregnancies, number of years of menstruation, atypical hyperplasia in the previous biopsy, and history of carcinoma in relatives. Conclusions: Waist size and WHR are the major risk factors for carcinoma of breast. Adequate exercise and weight control are the most effective lifestyle changes that can reduce the risk of developing breast cancer.

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