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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 22  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 298-304

Factors associated with intraventricular hemorrhage among preterm neonates in Aminu Kano teaching hospital

1 Department of Paediatrics, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria
2 Department of Paediatrics, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria
3 Department of Paediatrics, Bayero University Kano, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria
4 Department of Radiology, Bayero University Kano, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. C C Egwu
Department of Paediatrics, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, PMB 3452, Zaria Road, Kano
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/njcp.njcp_154_18

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Background: Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a severe complication among preterm neonates which can result in hydrocephalus, cerebral palsy, behavioural disorders, learning disabilities, or death. It is important to identify the factors associated with IVH in order to prevent these neurological consequences and reduce the resultant burden of neurological disease. Aim: To determine the factors associated with IVH among preterm neonates. Design: The study was prospective cross-sectional in design. Subjects and Methods: Ninety-nine preterm neonates who were < 37 completed weeks of gestation were recruited consecutively from the Special Care Baby Unit of a Tertiary Hospital. Transfontanelle ultrasonography was used to detect IVH and the factors associated with IVH were classified into: neonatal, maternal (prenatal), and clinical factors. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 for windows. Chi-squared test and Fisher's exact probability test were used as appropriate. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. The association between these factors and IVH was evaluated by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results: Among the 99 preterm neonates studied, 36 (36.4%) of them were between 28 and 31 weeks of gestation, whereas 63 (63.6%) were between 32 and 36 weeks of gestation. In univariate analysis, the factors found to be associated with IVH were lower gestational age <32 weeks gestation, low Apgar score of <3 in 1 and 5 min, respectively, outborn status of neonates, lower social class, need for respiratory support, and blood transfusion. However, the lower gestational age (odds ratio [OR]: 10.9, 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.95–61.04) and respiratory support (continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)) [OR: 52.24; CI: 3.40–721.84] were retained as significant predictors of IVH in the multivariate logistic regression model. Conclusion: The lower gestational age and respiratory support (CPAP) are independent predictors for IVH. Prevention of preterm delivery and improvement in interventions of neonatal care (CPAP) are necessary to prevent the risk for IVH especially in the early preterm neonates.

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