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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 22  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 422-431

In vitro investigation of antimicrobial effects, nanohardness, and cytotoxicity of different glass ionomer restorative materials in dentistry

1 Department of Paediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Hatay Mustafa Kemal, Hatay, Turkey
2 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Hatay Mustafa Kemal, Hatay, Turkey

Correspondence Address:
Dr. A Cosgun
Address Hatay Mustafa Kemal University, Dental Faculty, Department of Pedodontics, Hatay
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/njcp.njcp_429_18

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Aims: The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the antimicrobial effects, nanohardness, and cytotoxicity of different glass-ionomer restorative materials in dentistry. Materials and Methods: The following glass-ionomer restorative materials were used in our study: Argion (VOCO, Germany), Zirconomer (Shofu Inc., Japan), EQUIA Forte (GC, Japan), Fuji II LC capsule (GC, Japan), and Fuji IX GP capsule (GC, Japan). For the cytotoxicity test, a cell culture without release liquids was used as the control group. Microdilution and a disk diffusion test were used to measure the antimicrobial activity. The MTT (3- [4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl] -2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay was used to evaluate cytotoxicity. Nanohardness was measured using a nanoindenter device. Results: Our study determined that all restorative materials used in this study inhibited bacterial growth in cultures containing 1 × 102 cfu/ml of the bacterial concentrations (Lactobacillus casei and Streptococcus mutans) and that all restorative materials inhibited fungal growth in the cultures containing <1 × 102 cfu/ml of the fungal strains (Candida albicans). IC50 values obtained for the cytotoxicity test were analyzed using the Chi-square test. After a 72-h incubation period, Zirconomer, EQUIA Forte, Fuji IX GP capsule, and Fuji II LG capsule showed statistically significant lower cell viability values. (P < 0.05). The Kruskal-Wallis analysis was performed on the values obtained from the nanohardness test; the differences between the groups were found to be significant (P < 0.05). Conclusions: All materials tested showed low antimicrobial activity, and the antifungal activity of these materials was found to be lower than their antimicrobial activity. Only Argion showed non-cytotoxic effect. Beginning with the group with the highest nanohardness values and ending with the lowest, the groups are ranked in the following order: Fuji II LC capsule, EQUIA Forte, Argion, Fuji IX GP capsule, and Zirconomer.

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