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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 23  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 315-321

Factors associated with depression and anxiety among glaucoma patients in a tertiary hospital South-East Nigeria

1 Department of Ophthalmology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria
2 Department of Psychological Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Ituku-Ozalla, PMB 01129, Enugu, Nigeria
3 Department of Ophthalmology, Enugu State University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria
4 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Science, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. N Z Nwachukwu
Department of Ophthalmology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, PMB 01129, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/njcp.njcp_140_19

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Objective: To explore the factors associated with depression and anxiety among glaucoma patients. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving adult glaucoma patients, who attended the eye clinic of Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, Parklane, Enugu, from April to September 2018. In total, 182 glaucoma patients with no other significant ophthalmic or medical conditions were recruited. Information on their socio-demographic and clinical characteristics was obtained using a close-ended, interviewer-administered questionnaire. Detailed ophthalmic evaluation to characterize the glaucoma was done. Depression and anxiety were assessed using the hospital anxiety and depression scale. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Bivariate analysis was done to identify factors associated with depression and anxiety. The level of significance was at P < 0.05. Results: The participants were mainly females, 108 (59.3%), married, civil servants with tertiary education and mean age of 59.7 ± 13.3 SD years. Majority of them had advanced stage of primary open angle glaucoma. Eighty (44%) of the participants had anxiety, while 76 (41.8%) had depression. Severe/blind stage of glaucoma and reduced visual acuity were significantly associated with anxiety and depression; occupation (trading) and intraocular pressure of <21 mmHg also significantly associated with depression. Conclusion: The prevalence of anxiety and depression among glaucoma patients in Enugu was high. Severe/blind stage of glaucoma and reduced visual acuity were the most important factors that associated with both anxiety and depression. Incorporating a psychological health approach to glaucoma care especially in patients with severe glaucoma and reduced visual acuity may promote effective communication between clinicians and patients and treatment adherence.

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