Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice

: 2019  |  Volume : 22  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 293--297

A cross-sectional study of cytomegalovirus retinitis in HIV-1 infected adults in Nigeria

MA Adeiza1, AG Habib2 
1 Department of Medicine, Infectious Disease Unit, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Kaduna, Nigeria
2 Department of Medicine, Infectious and Tropical Disease Unit, College of Health Sciences, Bayero University/Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, UngwaUku, Kano, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. M A Adeiza
Department of Medicine, P.M.B 06, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Shika-Zaria, Kaduna State

Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is one of the most important opportunistic infections in HIV-infected patients in developing countries before the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. In Nigerian and African HIV populations, CMV retinitis is under-reported. Patients and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 250 HIV-infected adults ≥18 years were recruited by systematic random sampling from March to August 2013. Using a structured questionnaire, information was obtained on socio-demographic characteristics and symptoms of visual impairment. HIV disease was staged according to the WHO clinical staging, and CD4+ T-lymphocyte count was measured. Participants with symptoms of impaired vision and/or CD4+ T-lymphocyte count <50 cells/μL had indirect ophthalmoscopic examination of the retina to detect CMV related eye lesions. Results: Two hundred and fifty adults were HIV-infected, out of which 114 (46%) were males and 136 (54%) were females. The mean age of study participants was 35 years. History of impaired vision was reported by 21 (8.4%) of participants. The right eye was involved in 7 (33%), the left eye in 4 (19%), and both eyes in 10 (48%) of participants. The predominant symptoms were blurred vision 9 (43%), floaters 9 (43%), and blindness 3 (14%). Among participants who had indirect ophthalmoscopy, 3 (1.2%) had characteristic retinal changes suggestive of CMV retinitis. Two (67%) of patients with CMV retinitis were females and 1 (33%) was male. Mean CD4+ count was 25.33 ± 14.19 and all were WHO HIV clinical stage 4 with death occurring within 6 months of diagnosis. Conclusion: CMV retinitis though rare is associated with advanced HIV disease and attendant morbidity and mortality. We recommend integration of CMV diagnostic services and ophthalmological services as routine in HIV care and treatment programs in Nigeria targeted toward high-risk patients.

How to cite this article:
Adeiza M A, Habib A G. A cross-sectional study of cytomegalovirus retinitis in HIV-1 infected adults in Nigeria.Niger J Clin Pract 2019;22:293-297

How to cite this URL:
Adeiza M A, Habib A G. A cross-sectional study of cytomegalovirus retinitis in HIV-1 infected adults in Nigeria. Niger J Clin Pract [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 May 21 ];22:293-297
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