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   2007| March  | Volume 10 | Issue 1  
    Online since December 1, 2010

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Misconception of emergency contraception among tertiary school students in Akwa Ibom State, South-south, Nigeria
AM Abasiattai, AJ Umoiyoho, EA Bassey, SJ Etuk, EJ Udoma
March 2007, 10(1):30-34
PMID:17668712
OBJECTIVE: To assess the degree of awareness and use of emergency contraception among tertiary school students inAkwa Ibom State, Nigeria. DESIGN: A self-administered questionnaire survey. SETTING: The Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic, Ikot Osurua, located on the outskirts of Ikot Ekpene local government area between 1stApril 2002 and 31st April 2002. SUBJECTS: 1,000 randomly selected female students ofthe Akwa Ibom State polytechnic, Ikot Osurua RESULTS: The students were aged between 16 and 43 years. Five hundred and eighty-nine (68.5%) of the respondents had heard of products that could be used as emergency contraceptives. However, only 49 (5.7%) of the respondents had practised some form of emergency contraception, which was most commonly practised by those between 16 and 25 years (71.4%). Menstrogen (30.6%), gynaecosid (24.5%), and quinine (14.3%) were the most common medications used for emergency contraception. Patent medicine dealers (40.9%) and friends/course mates (29.7%) were the most common sources of knowledge about emergency contraception. CONCLUSION: This study shows that awareness and use of emergency contraception by our youths is low. Community enlightenment about emergency contraception using specifically designed programmes, the formation of reproductive health clubs in our tertiary institutions and training of peer group educators in all our communities are advocated. Patent medicine dealers in our communities should have basic training in modern contraceptive methods and periodic evaluation should be carried out to assess their knowledge and practice of emergency contraception.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
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REVIEW ARTICLES
A review of the risk factors in primary open angle glaucoma
AE Omoti, OT Edema
March 2007, 10(1):79-82
PMID:17668721
The aetiology of primary open-angle glaucoma is still uncertain. However certain factors are known or suspected of having an aetiologic role. These are known as the risk factors. These include higher intraocular pressures, black race, old age especially after the age of 40 years, the peculiar larger optic disc structure of black people, a positive family history, vascular factors such as systemic hypertension, perfusion pressure, vasospasm, atherosclerosis and acute hypotension which is a risk factor for normal-tension glaucoma. Others are diabetes, which is prone to selection bias, myopia, a history of typical migraine headaches, thinner central corneal thickness and the ability to taste phenylthiourea. If a particular patient is identified as having one or more of these risk factors, that patient is by definition, at greater risk of developing glaucoma than a patient who does not.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Presentation and outcome of eclampsia at a Nigerian university hospital
AO Olatunji, AO Sule-Odu
March 2007, 10(1):1-4
PMID:17668706
OBJECTIVE: To review the presentation of eclampsia and its outcome on the mother and babies in our environment with a view to suggesting strategies for improvement. METHODS: A retrospective study at 93 cases of eclampsia treated at Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital Sagamu was undertaken. Data was collected by scrutinizing the case files collected from the medical records library after collecting their numbers from the labour ward register. RESULTS: There were 93 cases of eclampsia out of a total delivery of 5423 giving an incidence of 1.7 percent. Almost all the patients (96.8%) were unbooked. Antepartum eclampsia constituted 93.5 percent of cases. Nulliparous teenagers were the most commonly affected with a relative risk of 25 when compared with multips. Caesarean delivery was more common than vaginal delivery in the ratio 6:4. There were 19 maternal deaths, a case fatality rate of 20.0 percent and this was not related to the mode of delivery. (RR 1- 1.1). The perinatal mortality was significantly less with caesarean delivery (RR 1:0.38). CONCLUSION: Eclampsia, occurring mainly in unbooked patients is still one of the major causes of maternal mortality and good antenatal care will significantly reduce the incidence and improve the outcome especially in teenage nullipara who are mostly susceptible.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  9 404 0
Digital rectal examination for prostate cancer : attitude and experience of final year medical students
K Dakum, VM Ramyil, S Agbo, E Ogwuche, BS Makama, AT Kidmas
March 2007, 10(1):5-9
PMID:17668707
OBJECTIVE: Prostate cancer which tends to take an aggressive course in black populations can be detected by digital rectal examination (DRE). There are concerns however that medical students are not acquiring the necessary DRE skills. We therefore studied their experience and attitude towards DRE for prostate cancer to assist us make any necessary adjustments in training. METHODS: This was a self-administered questionnaire based study of final year medical students two months to graduation carried out at the Jos University Teaching Hospital, location for clinical studies of the Medical Faculty ofthe University of Jos. RESULTS: There were 100 students in the study, with a male: female ratio of 3.6:1. The ages ranged from 24 to 35 with a mean of 28 years. Fifty-one percent and 94% agreed they had been taught DRE in class and on the ward/clinic respectively. Almost half (45%) had never performed a DRE and 43% performed it only 1-2 times. Sixty-two percent of the students had never confidently palpated a prostate; while 30% had palpated it 1 2 times. Eighty-six percent and 7% respectively have never felt a clinically malignant prostate or felt it 1 2 times. There was no statistically significant difference in the number of DREs performed by sex or age (p> 0.05). On supervision 43% were never supervised to do DRE while 23% were supervised all the time. Ninety-five percent believed DRE is an essential requirement for a medical practitioner and 96% believed they should have the skills before graduating. Only 36%, however, believed their teachers have been supportive, teaching them DRE (p value = .033). Ninety percent agreed that DRE is useful for screening for prostate cancer. The major reason for not performing DRE more than half the time was the student not feeling competent (54%). CONCLUSION: Students have received adequate teaching on DRE, have the right attitude and perspective, have adequate knowledge on DRE findings suggestive of prostate cancer but have not translated this knowledge into practice. This is mainly due to the students not feeling competent. Teachers need to intensify practical supervision to enable medical students acquire the necessary experience during clinical training.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
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Disability and care-giving in old age in a Nigerian community
R Uwakwe, I Modebe
March 2007, 10(1):58-65
PMID:17668717
AIM: To describe the pattern of disability and care for older community residents in a selected Nigerian location. METHOD: Older persons living at home in Okporo Community were first identified through the traditional ruler and his assistant. The socio demographic profiles and any present diseases of these older subjects were obtained through a face- to face interview and they were subsequently assessed with the modified World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule Short version (WHO DAS-S). The primary care givers of the older subjects were interviewed to obtain their actual care giving role. A summarized Zarit Burden Interview and the twelve item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) were used to measure the emotional impact on the caregivers. RESULTS: A total of 102 older subjects were recruited, with about 47% having some form of disability. Many comorbid physical diseases were reported. Most of the older subjects' children had left the community and females were the main care providers. Help with self-care was the greatest problem reported by the carers and care giving was regarded as very heavy burden associated with high emotional distress. CONCLUSION: Disability is high in community elderly subjects. Care giving is proving a great challenge in the face of children disserting their parents, and increasing harsh economy. There is need for a systematic, realistic plan to implement qualitative care policy for older Nigerians.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
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Magnitude and gender distribution of obesity and abdominal adiposity in Nigerians with type 2 diabetes mellitus
OA Fasanmade, NU Okubadejo
March 2007, 10(1):52-57
PMID:17668716
BACKGROUND: Obesity and abdominal adiposity are associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity in diabetes. This study evaluated their magnitude and gender distribution in Nigerians with Type 2 DM attending a tertiary care clinic. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 258 consecutive patients with type 2 DM were evaluated. Base line characteristics (gender, age, duration of DM), weight, height, waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference were recorded. Body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratios (WHR), and waist-to-height ratios (WHtR) were calculated for each patient. RESULTS: Despite similar demographics (mean age and duration of DM), the prevalence of of DM was significantly higher in females (35/135 i.e.25.9% compared to 13/123 i.e. 10.6% in males) (2; P=0.007). Median BMI (27.1 v. 25.6), WHtR (0.58 v. 0.54), and frequency of elevated WC (71.9% v. 21.1%) and elevated WHR (94.1% v. 49.6%) were all significantly higher in females compared to males (P<0.05). Amongst obese persons, the magnitude of obesity and abdominal adiposity was also significantly higher in females as exemplified by median BMI (females: 34.3 v. males 31.6; P=0.014) and median WHtR (0.70 v. 0.64; P=0.0016). CONCLUSIONS: The evident gender disparity of obesity and abdominal adiposity in females with type 2 DM represented by this cohort buttresses the need to focus on obesity management in African women with DM as a special at-risk group in order to minimize the potential for adverse cardiovascular outcome.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
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Perinatal mortality in University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Enugu at the end of the last millennium
GN Adimora, IO Odetunde
March 2007, 10(1):19-23
PMID:17668710
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to determine the Perinatal Mortality Rate at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu, Nigeria at the end of the last millennium. There had been no comprehensive study on this since the inception of the institution in the early seventies. METHODS: A five-year retrospective, hospital based study of the births and deaths of infants under one week of age was carried out. This was done using the birth records in the Labour Ward (LW), and the New Born Special Care Unit (NBSCU) of the hospital. The UNTH is a referral centre in Enugu covering five states in Eastern Nigeria. However, for the purpose of this study, all babies referred from other hospitals, maternity homes etc (BBA's), were not included. All births and deaths from twenty two weeks gestational age to one week after birth were included in the study. The data were collected by the doctors involved in the study from January 1995 to December 1999 inclusive. RESULT: Six thousand, three hundred and seventy-six babies were recruited into the study. Out of this number, 5942 were live births, 434 were still births while 411 were early neonatal deaths. Seventy-four babies were dropped from the study (1.16%), due to insufficient information and mutilation of some parts of the records. The total perinatal deaths was 845 giving a perinatal mortality rate (PMR) of 133.94/1000, a high PMR when compared with similar centers in and outside Nigeria.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
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A ten-year study of measles admissions in a Nigerian teaching hospital
MB Fetuga, OF Jokanma, OB Ogunfowora, R Abiodun
March 2007, 10(1):41-46
PMID:17668714
BACKGROUND: Measles remains a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in Nigeria despite the availability of safe and effective vaccines. The last report on measles from our center was about 15 years ago. A review of the current status is necessary in order to strengthen interventional strategies. OBJECTIVES: To study the burden and epidemiological correlates of measles admissions in a Nigerian teaching hospital. DESIGN: Retrospective. SUBJECTS: Children admitted with measles infection and/or complications. METHODS: A review of medical records of measles admissions over the 10-year period, May 1994 and April 2004. RESULTS: One hundred and sixty four children (6.1% of paediatric admissions) aged 4 months to 12 years (28.4 + 28.82 months) were admitted with measles. Sixty-three infants (< or = 12 months old) accounted for 39.4% of patients with about half of them younger than nine months. History of vaccination against measles was obtained in 43 (29.5%) subjects. Forty- eight (32.9%) children were underweight weighing between 60-80% of the expected weight for age and six (4.1%) of them were marasmic weighing below 60% of expected weight for age. None of the patients had oedema. The commonest complication was bronchopneumonia (55.5%). Major complications were less commonly associated with children who weighed more than 80% of expected weight (p = 0.011). The case fatality rate was 7.5 % accounting for 0.4% of childhood mortality. Children without prior measles vaccination, those of low socio-economic status and those weighing less than 80% of expected for age all had significantly higher mortality rates. (p< 0.05 in each case). CONCLUSION: Measles incidence has risen in the last ten years in Sagamu and its environs but it is still largely a disease of young children. Therefore routine immunization and disease surveillance should be strengthened. Supplemental immunization activities should also be considered.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  5 463 0
Obstetric outcome of twin pregnancies in Jos, Nigeria
JT Mutihir, VC Pam
March 2007, 10(1):15-18
PMID:17668709
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were to determine the incidence, maternal and foetal outcome of twin delivery in Jos, Nigeria. METHODOLOGY: All consecutive twin deliveries between August 2003 and November 2004 were studied. Data obtained at the time of delivery included maternal age, parity, gestational age at the time of delivery, foetal Apgar scores at birth, gender/sex and foetal weights. RESULTS: A total of 3,420 deliveries were conducted and 75 were twin deliveries constituting 2.3%, or 1 in 43 deliveries. The mean age and parity of mothers were 28.96 and 3.20 respectively. Male infants constituted 54.7% of the twins with a sex ratio of 1.206 boys to 1.0 girls. Among the twin deliveries, presentation of cephalic-cephalic for the first and second twins was the most common, (48.0%). Male-male twin pair occurred in 33.3%, male-female twins in 22.7%, female-female in 24%, while female-male twins occurred in 20.0%. Males were first twin in 56.0% and second twin in 53.4%; while females were first twin in 44.0% and second twin in 46.6% of the cases. Caesarean section rate was 41.3% in the overall twin pregnancies. Perinatal mortality was 91 per 1000 deliveries. CONCLUSION: The incidence of twin pregnancy in Jos is high. The commonest maternal morbidity was preterm labour and delivery. Foetal low birth weight was present in about three quarters of the infants. Perinatal mortality rate was expectedly increased in the study. Close antenatal and perinatal assessment and care need be given to mothers of twin pregnancies in order to reduce the maternal and foetal complications.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  3 332 0
CASE REPORTS
Spectrum of urological procedures in University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
N Eke, MK Sapira, RC Echem
March 2007, 10(1):74-78
PMID:17668720
AIM: To determine the relative frequencies of types of operations, age and gender distribution of the patients and the indications for operation in the Urology Unit over a 10-year period between 1989 and 1998. SETTING: The Urology Unit of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. TYPE OF STUDY: Retrospective. METHODS: Patients' demographic data were collected from the Main Theatre registers of the Hospital, the Medical Records Department ward records patients' and case note. Those operations done in the Urology Unit were analysed. RESULTS: Urological operations (total 1875) formed 22.6% of all surgical operations in the hospital during the decade under review. There were 1847 males (98.5%) and 28 females (1.5%). The age distribution showed two peaks in the first decade and in the seventh decade. Frequencies of operations were least in the 4th decade and after the 9th decade. Circumcisions, surgery for prostate disease, procedures for urethral strictures, urological trauma and paediatric reconstruction formed the majority of operations. Endoscopic urological procedures were limited to the occasional cystoscopy. Some 67.6% of the operations were performed in the first half of the decade and 32.4% in the second half. A rapid decrease in the number of operations was noticed which compared with the same pattern in the Department of Surgery as a whole. CONCLUSION: We recommend the establishment and development of human and material resources for Urological service for basic procedures and endo-urological practice in keeping with contemporary trends and the allocation of more theatre space and out-patient Clinic time to the urology service.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  2 473 0
Bilateral benign phyllodes tumour in a nulliparous woman : a case report and review of literature
ER Ezeome, OC Okafor, CE Nwajiobi, CC Osuagwu
March 2007, 10(1):66-69
PMID:17668718
Cystosarcoma Phyllodes is an uncommon disease of the breast with variable clinical behaviour. Its incidence is reported as 1% of all breast tumours. The occurrence of bilateral disease is very rare. In this communication, we present a case of metachronous bilateral benign cystosarcoma phyllodes presenting in a 24year old nulliparous lady. She had right breast mastectomy after two recurrences following local excision. The left breast lesion developed one year after the treatment of the right lesion, again she had to be treated with mastectomy after 2 recurrences. This case unlike most reported cases of bilateral Phyllodes tumour occurred in a nulliparous lady. The problems of diagnosis, clinical behaviour and management are discussed.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  2 384 0
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Aetiology, management and outcome of entero-cutaneous fistula in Maiduguri, Nigeria
UE Eni, HU Na'aya, BM Gali
March 2007, 10(1):47-51
PMID:17668715
BACKGROUND: Enterocutaneous fistula (ECF) remains an important surgical problem with significant morbidity and mortality. This study aims to review the aetiology and management outcome in a depressed economy like ours. METHODS: A retrospective review of 54 patients with ECF admitted into the surgical wards of the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital (UMTH) between January 1994 and December 2004 (11 year period). RESULTS: Thirty two (59.3%) were males and 22 (40.7%) were females giving a male/female ratio of 1.5 to 1. The age ranged from 1 to 58 years with two peak incidents of 20-29 years and 40-49 years. Eighteen cases (33%) occurred following appendicectomy, 12 (22%) following laparotomy for intestinal obstruction, 10 (18.5%) following laparotomy for abdominal malignancies, 7 (13%) followed laparotomy for penetrating abdominal injuries, 3 (5.5%) followed laparotomy for perforated typhoid enteritis, 2 (3.7%) cases were due to spontaneous rupture of strangulated and neglected inguinal hernia, 1 (1.9%) case followed chest tube insertion for pleural effusion in a PTB patient and 1 (1.9%) case followed a native healer's incision on a lumber hernia. Altogether,45 (83.3%) were referred cases from peripheral hospitals. Fourty one (76%) were high output type, while 13 (24%) were low output type. Most patients 32 (59.3%) healed spontaneously on conservative management. Eighteen (33%) had surgical intervention. Eight patients demised giving a mortality rate of 15%. The average hospital stay was 56 days. CONCLUSION: The main cause of ECF in our environment is postoperative (94.4%) with post appendicectomy cases alone accounting for 33%. Majority of our patients (66.7%) were managed conservatively.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
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Hospital admission of patients with sickle cell anaemia pattern and outcome in Enugu area of Nigeria
AN Ikefuna, IJ Emodi
March 2007, 10(1):24-29
PMID:17668711
BACKGROUND OBJECTIVE: The admission of children with sickle cell anaemia into the Paediatric ward of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, (UNTH) Enugu was retrospectively reviewed to ascertain their pattern and outcome. Such data are useful in guiding future health policies on such children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Medical files of patients with sickle cell anaemia who were admitted between May 1998 and April 2002 were analyzed. Their clinical features, investigations done, diagnosis on admission, complications and subsequent outcome of admissions were noted. RESULTS: More children were admitted during the rainy season. (p<0.05) Male: Female ratio was 1.2:1. More children (70.4%) failed to comply with treatment of which a statistically significant number came from the lower social class (p = 0.001). Infections were the commonest cause of admission (69.6%). Severe anaemia was the commonest complications (39.4%). Mortality occurred in 8.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Intensive counseling of patients, with the involvement of Social workers and health visitors, is strongly advocated. There is need for antibiotic prophylaxis for all children with sickle cell anaemia.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
  2 436 0
Adult malignant lymphomas in University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria--incidence and survival
CE Omoti, NK Halim
March 2007, 10(1):10-14
PMID:17668708
BACKGROUND: The occurrence of malignant lymphomas is worldwide and its incidence has being increasing, ranked 12th among all, cancers worldwide. We aim to determine the incidence and survival of the lymphoma patients in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. STUDY DESIGN: A study of 205 cases of lymphoma patients from 1993 to 2003. One-year survival was calculated using simple percentage of those alive and those that died before 1 year of diagnosis. RESULTS: A total of 205 patients aged 18-72 years were studied. Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) was the most frequent (83%) while Hodgkin's Lymphoma (HL) had an incidence of 17%. The 1 year survival for patients with NHL and HL was 35.3% and 42.9% respectively. We found a strong association between haemoglobin (Hb) and white blood cell count (WBC) at presentation and lyear survival in NHL patients (P=0.0003; P=0.0001) and HL patients (P=0.0001; P=0.0104) respectively. Also, the mean Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) for lymphoma patients alive at lyear was significantly lower than those that died within 1 year (P=0.0001). Duration of illness before presentation was found to influence 1 year survival. CONCLUSION: We conclude that NHL was the most common of the lymphoma seen in young adulthood in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. A positive correlation between survival and duration of illness at presentation and haematological counts was found. The 1 year survival is still very poor and this may not be unconnected with late presentation and other strong limiting factors.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available    [CITATIONS]  [PubMed]
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CASE REPORT
Twenty-one-year-old male with congenital anomalies, obstructive uropathy and chronic renal failure : is this a case of Townes Brocks syndrome?
EI Unuigbe, CA Azubike, EI Okaka, JO Osarenkhoe, VC Onuora
March 2007, 10(1):91-94
PMID:17668723
Townes Brocks syndrome is an autosomal dominant multiple malformations syndrome comprising of ear anomalies/hearing loss, limb defects, anal, genitourinary, eye, spine anomalies, heart defects and sometimes mental retardation. This report presents the case of a 21-year-old secondary school leaver as a likely case of Townes-Brocks syndrome. He was born with congenital abnormalities consisting of fixed flexion deformities of hands, wrist and elbows, urethral meatal stenosis, scoliosis and aortic stenosis. He was diagnosed with obstructive uropathy at the age of 19 years and subsequently developed chronic renal failure. The report aims to highlight the need for early recognition of potentially preventable conditions, which, if left unattended to, can lead to unnecessary fatality.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available     [PubMed]
  - 349 0
CASE REPORTS
Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast at Enugu Nigeria
GE Njeze
March 2007, 10(1):70-73
PMID:17668719
BACKGROUND: (Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the breast is a rare type of neoplasm that is histologically indistinguishable from other examples in other sites and generally has a good prognosis). To characterize the clinical and pathological features of ACC in our environment, as well as the treatment offered to our patients, a review of the clinical records of patients treated at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu was undertaken. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Case notes of breast cancer patients stored in the medical records department were retrospectively reviewed with a view to studying those with ACC. Follow up on these patients were documented. RESULT: Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast was diagnosed in 9 out of 222 patients treated for cancer of the breast, from 1995-2000. Patients aged 34-70 years were afflicted with this disease. A lump in the breast led to the initial suspicion of a tumor. Some of them had pain in the breast. Many of the patients came with advanced disease. Surgical treatment ranged from simple mastectomy to modified radical mastectomy with radiotherapy and chemotherapy in some patients. CONCLUSION: The disease is rare at Enugu but contrary to findings elsewhere, majority of our patients had advanced disease. Those with early disease appeared to have a good outcome.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available     [PubMed]
  - 368 0
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Survival of infants and children born to women who died from pregnancy and labour related complications
JY Obed, ET Agida, AG Mairiga
March 2007, 10(1):35-40
PMID:17668713
OBJECTIVE: In response to concern raised on the high rate of maternal mortality in developing countries, this cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the survival of infants born to mothers who died during the process of child birth. METHODOLOGY: The survey was conducted in Gwoza and Konduga Local Government Areas of Borno State, Nigeria over a 12 week period; January to March, 1996. RESULTS: Sixty four live-born infants of 76 deceased mothers were studied. The majority of the infants were either nursed by the deceased's sister or mother. Alternative or donor breast milk by a surrogate mother (usually the deceased close relation), goat or cow milk were the common form of feeding from birth to 6 months of age followed by groundnut enriched pap. Twenty (31.3%) of the infants survived upto 5 years of age while 44 (68.6%) did not. Factors favouring infant survival include nursing, up-bringing and breast-feeding by a surrogate mother (who is usually either the deceased's sister or mother), infant feeding with goat's or cow's milk, Immunization, hospital treatment of aliments, hospital delivery or maternal death in the hospital and finally when the caretaker is of low party and upper social class status. Factors responsible for infant death included prematurity, cause of maternal death was due to sepsis as a result of prolonged labour or premature rupture of fetal membranes, birth asphyxia, tetanus, respiratory problems, fever, convulsions, diaorrhea and vomiting and malnutrition. CONCLUSION: These babies are readily accepted by the society because it is believed that the caretaker would receive a lot of blessing from God. On the other hand, the death of such babies is considered a double loss even though there is a low expectation for their survival.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available     [PubMed]
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Left ventricular hypertrophy in renal failure a review
EB Arodiwe
March 2007, 10(1):83-90
PMID:17668722
Renal failure is becoming increasingly common in our enironment. Advances in management like availability of dialysis and transplantation is prolonging the live of patients. As a consequence complication are increasingly being encountered. Cardiovascular complication is one of the commonest; and left ventricular hypertrophy is one of the major cardiovascular complications of end stage renal failure. It is an independent predictor of survival in patients with chronic renal failure and is present in a large number of patients entering maintenance haemodialysis. This review summarizes the occurrences of left ventricular hypertrophy, its pathomechhanism, clinical significance, evaluation and interventional strategies. This information is useful to us as we grapple with this problem.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available     [PubMed]
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